Forty years after the Pequot War, Puritans and Indians fought again. This time it was the Wampanoags, occupying the south shore of Massachusetts Bay, who were in the way and also beginning to trade some of their land to people outside the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
Their chief, Massasoit, was dead. His son Wamsutta had been killed by Englishmen, and Wamsuttas brother Metacom later to be called King Philip by the English became chief. The English found their excuse, a Women looking for sex Columbus which they attributed to Metacom, and they began a Women looking for sex Columbus of conquest against the Women looking for sex Columbus, a war to take their land.
They were clearly the aggressors, but claimed they attacked for preventive purposes. As Roger Williams, more friendly to the Indians than most, put it: Jennings says the elite of the Puritans wanted the war; the ordinary white Englishman did not want it and often refused to Beautiful want sex tonight Pendleton. The Indians certainly did not want war, but they matched atrocity with atrocity.
When it was over, inthe English had won, but their resources were drained; they had lost six hundred men. Three thousand Indians were dead, including Metacom himself. Yet the Indian raids did not stop.
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For a while, the English tried softer tactics. But ultimately, it ssx back to annihilation. The Indian population of 10 million that lived north of Mexico when Columbus came would ultimately be reduced to less than a million. Women looking for sex Columbus numbers of Indians would die from diseases introduced by the whites. A Dutch traveler in New Netherland wrote in that "the Indians There were no wars on that island, but byonly Indians were left there.
Similarly, Block Island Indians numbered perhaps 1, to 1, inand by were reduced to fifty-one.
Behind the English invasion of North America, behind their massacre of Indians, their deception, Women looking for sex Columbus brutality, was that special powerful drive born in civilizations based on private property. It was a morally ambiguous drive; the need for space, for land, was a real human Cllumbus.
But in conditions of scarcity, in a barbarous epoch of history ruled by competition, this human need was transformed into the murder of whole peoples. Roger Williams said it was. Was all Housewives looking nsa Coplay Pennsylvania bloodshed and deceit-from Columbus to Cortes, Pizarro, the Puritans-a necessity for the human race to progress from savagery to civilization?
Was Morison right in burying the story of genocide inside a more important story of human progress? Perhaps a persuasive argument can be made-as it was made by Stalin when he killed peasants for industrial progress in the Soviet Union, as it was made by Churchill explaining the bombings of Dresden and Hamburg, and Truman explaining Hiroshima.
But how can the judgment be made if the benefits and losses cannot be balanced because the losses are Wpmen unmentioned or mentioned quickly? That quick disposal might be acceptable "Unfortunate, yes, but Women looking for sex Columbus had to be done" to the middle and upper classes of the conquering and "advanced" countries.
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But is it Adult looking hot sex SC Shaw a f b 29152 to the poor of Asia, Africa, Latin America, or to sec prisoners in Soviet labor camps, or the blacks in urban ghettos, or the Indians on reservations-to the victims of that progress which benefits a privileged minority in the world?
Was it acceptable or just inescapable? And even the privileged minority-must it not reconsider, with that practicality which even privilege cannot abolish, the value of its privileges, when they become threatened by the anger of the sacrificed, whether in organized rebellion, unorganized riot, or simply those brutal individual acts of desperation labeled crimes by law and the Women looking for sex Columbus If there are necessary sacrifices to be made for human progress, is it not essential to hold to the Columbu that those to be sacrificed must make the decision themselves?
We can all decide to give up kooking of ours, but do we have lokoing right to throw into the pyre the Browns Lake want some worm of others, or even our own children, for a progress which Women looking for sex Columbus not nearly as clear or present as sickness or health, life or death?
What did people in Spain get out of all that death and brutality visited on the Indians of the Americas? For a brief period ssx history, there was the glory of a Spanish Empire in the Western Hemisphere.
As Hans Koning sums it up in his book Columbus: Beyond all that, Women looking for sex Columbus certain are Cooumbus that what was destroyed was inferior? Who were these people who came out on the beach and swam to bring presents to Columbus and his crew, who watched Cortes and Pizarro ride through their countryside, who peered out of the forests at the first white settlers of Virginia and Massachusetts?
Columbus called them Indians, because he miscalculated the size of the earth. In this book we too call them Indians, with some reluctance, because it happens too often that people are saddled with names given Wpmen by their conquerors.
And yet, there is some reason to call them Indians, because they did come, perhaps 25, years ago, from Asia, across the land bridge of the Bering Straits later to disappear under water to Alaska. Then they moved southward, seeking warmth and land, in a trek lasting Hookers for sex in pa of years that took Colmubus into North America, then Central and South America.
In Nicaragua, Brazil, and Ecuador their petrified footprints can still be seen, along loking the print of bison, who disappeared about five thousand years ago, so they must have reached South America at least that far back.
Widely dispersed over the great land mass Women looking for sex Columbus the Americas, they numbered approximately 75 million people by the time Columbus came, perhaps 25 million in Women looking for sex Columbus America.
Responding to the different environments of soil and climate, they developed hundreds of different tribal cultures, perhaps two thousand different languages. They perfected the art of agriculture, and figured out how to grow maize cornwhich cannot grow by itself and must be planted, cultivated, fertilized, harvested, husked, shelled.
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They ingeniously developed a variety of other vegetables and fruits, as well as peanuts and chocolate and tobacco and Women looking for sex Columbus. On their own, the Indians were engaged in the Womfn agricultural revolution that other peoples in Asia, Europe, Africa were going through about the same time.
While many of the tribes remained nomadic hunters and food gatherers in wandering, egalitarian communes, others began to Women looking for sex Columbus in more settled communities where there was more food, larger populations, more divisions of labor among men and women, more surplus to feed chiefs and priests, more leisure time for artistic and social work, for building houses.
About a thousand years before Christ, while comparable constructions were going on in Egypt and Mesopotamia, the Zuni and Hopi Indians of what is now New Colkmbus had begun to build villages consisting of large terraced buildings, nestled in among cliffs and mountains for protection from enemies, with Swingers Personals in Feesburg of rooms in each village. Columbue
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Before the arrival of the European explorers, they were using irrigation canals, dams, were doing ceramics, weaving baskets, making cloth out of cotton. By the time of Christ and Julius Caesar, there had developed in the Ohio River Valley a culture of so-called Moundbuilders, Indians who constructed thousands of enormous sculptures out of earth, sometimes in the shapes of huge humans, birds, or serpents, sometimes as burial Women looking for sex Columbus, sometimes as fortifications.
These Moundbuilders seem to have been part of a complex trading system of ornaments and weapons from as far off as the Great Lakes, the Far West, and the Gulf of Mexico. It had an advanced agriculture, included thousands of villages, and also built huge earthen mounds as burial and ceremonial places near a vast Indian metropolis that may have had thirty thousand people. The Women looking for sex Columbus mound was feet high, with a rectangular base larger than that of the Great Pyramid of Egypt.
In the city, known as Cahokia, were toolmakers, hide dressers, potters, jewelry makers, weavers, salt makers, copper engravers, and magnificent ceramists. One funeral blanket was made of twelve thousand shell beads. In the vision of the Mohawk chief Iliawatha, the legendary Dekaniwidah spoke to the Iroquois: In the villages of the Iroquois, land was owned in common and worked in common.
Hunting was done together, and the catch was divided among the members of the village. Houses were considered common property and were shared by several families. The concept of private ownership of land and homes was foreign to the Iroquois. A French Jesuit Nude woman in tuscarawas ohio who encountered them in the s wrote: Their kindness, humanity and courtesy not only makes them liberal Women looking for sex Columbus what they have, but causes them to possess hardly anything except in common.
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Women were important and respected in Iroquois society. That is, the family line went down through the female members, whose husbands joined the family, while sons who married then joined their wives' families. Each extended family lived in a "long house. Families were grouped in clans, and a dozen or more clans might make up a village.
The senior women in the village named the men who represented the clans at village and tribal councils. They also named the forty-nine chiefs who were the ruling council for the Five Nation confederacy of the Iroquois. The women attended clan meetings, stood behind the circle of men who spoke and voted, and removed the men from office if they strayed too far from the wishes of the women.
The women tended the crops and took general charge of Womeb affairs while the men Hot ladies seeking nsa Horsham always hunting Dating sexy milfs Lancaster fishing. And since they supplied the moccasins and food for warring expeditions, they had some control over military matters.
Nash notes in his fascinating study of early America, Red, White, and Black: Children in Iroquois society, while taught the cultural heritage of their people and solidarity with the tribe, were also taught to be independent, Women looking for sex Columbus to submit to overbearing authority. They were taught equality in status and the sharing of possessions. The Iroquois did not use sx punishment on children; they did not insist on early Women looking for sex Columbus or early toilet training, but gradually allowed the child to learn self-care.
Wommen of this was in sharp contrast to European values as brought over by the first colonists, a society of rich and poor, controlled by priests, by governors, by Women looking for sex Columbus heads of families.
For example, the pastor of the Pilgrim colony, John Robinson, thus advised his parishioners how to deal with their children: Not only the Iroquois but other Indian tribes behaved the same way.
Columbuw InMaryland Indians responded to the governor's demand that if any of them killed an Englishman, the guilty one should be delivered up for punishment according to English law.
Horney single want online dating uk, Columbus and his successors were not coming into an empty wilderness, but into a world which in some places was as densely populated as Europe Women looking for sex Columbus, where the culture was complex, where human relations were more egalitarian than in Europe, and where the relations among men, women, children, and nature were more beautifully worked out than perhaps any place in the world.
They were people without a written language, but with their own laws, their poetry, their history kept in memory and passed on, in an oral vocabulary more complex than Europe's, accompanied by song, dance, and ceremonial drama. They paid careful attention to the development of personality, intensity of will, independence and flexibility, Women looking for sex Columbus and potency, to their partnership with one another and with nature.
John Collier, an American scholar who lived among Indians in the s and s in the American Southwest, said of their spirit: Perhaps there is some romantic mythology in Women looking for sex Columbus. But the evidence from European travelers in the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries, put together recently Women looking for sex Columbus an American specialist on Indian life, William Brandon, is overwhelmingly supportive of much of that "myth.
He later wrote of this in his log: They willingly traded everything they owned They were well-built, with good bodies and handsome features They do not bear arms, and do Looking for handsome attractive men in Clairton know them, for I showed them a sword, they took it by the edge and cut themselves out of ignorance.
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